The Rosenstrasse women’s protest was a nonviolent protest in Berlin in February and March 1943, carried out by the non-Jewish wives and relatives of Jewish men who had been arrested for deportation. The protests escalated until the men were released. It was a significant instance of opposition to the events of the Holocaust.

Just after the German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad, the Gestapo had arrested the last of the Jews in Berlin. Around 1,800 Jewish men, almost all of them married to non-Jewish women, were separated from the other 6,000 of the arrested, and housed temporarily at Rosenstraße 2–4, a welfare office for the Jewish community located in Central Berlin. Before these men could be loaded onto the trains to be deported, their wives and other close relatives turned up on the street near the building. For a week, the protesters, mainly women, demanded their husbands back by holding a peaceful protest. The protesters appeared first in ones and twos; afterwards their number grew rapidly, and perhaps a total of 6000 participated at one time or another.

Not wanting to invite open dissent by shooting the women down in the streets, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, at that time Gauleiter (district leader) of Berlin, released the prisoners, and ordered the return of 25 men already sent to Auschwitz. Almost all the released men survived the war.

The building on Rosenstraße, near Alexanderplatz, in which the men were held, was destroyed during an Allied bombing of Berlin at the end of the war.

In the mid-1980s, Ingeborg Hunzinger, an East German sculptor, created a memorial to those women who took part in the Rosenstraße Protest. The memorial, named "Block der Frauen" (Block of Women), was erected in 1995 in a park not far from the site of the protest. The sculpture shows protesting and mourning women, and an inscription on the back reads: "The strength of civil disobedience, the vigor of love overcomes the violence of dictatorship; Give us our men back; Women were standing here, defeating death; Jewish men were free."