Maly Trostenets, a small village on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, was the site of a Nazi extermination camp.  Originally built in the summer of 1941 as a concentration camp to house Soviet prisoners of war, the camp became an extermination camp on May 10, 1942. While many Jews from GermanyAustria and the present-day Czech Republic met their deaths there (in most cases almost immediately upon their arrival, by being trucked to the nearby forests and shot in the back of the neck), the primary purpose of the camp was the extermination of the substantial Jewish community of Minsk and the surrounding area. Mobile gas chambers deployed here performed a subsidiary if not insignificant function in the genocidal process. There is less than three known survivors of the camp, and original estimates of the number of people killed there ranged from 200,000 to more than half a million.

On June 28, 1944, as the Red Army approached the region, the Nazis bombed the camp in an attempt to obliterate evidence of its existence. But the Soviets are said to have discovered 34 gravepits, some measuring as much as 50 meters in length and 3 to 4 meters in depth, located in the Blagovshchina Forest some 500 meters from the Minsk–Mogilev highway. Yad Vashem currently estimates the number as 65,000 Jews, while German historian Christian Gerlach estimates the number to be in the range of 40,000–60,000. Signage on the site indicates 206,000 were murdered there.