Dora-Mittelbau was a Nazi Germany labor camp that provided workers for the Mittelwerk V-2 rocket factory situated near Nordhausen, Germany. Approximately 60,000 prisoners from 21 nations (mostly Russians, Poles, and French) passed through Dora. An estimated 20,000 inmates died; 9,000 died from exhaustion and collapse, 350 hanged (including 200 for sabotage), the remainder died mainly from disease and starvation. Dora had as many as 40 subcamps which were used to house prison slave laborers.

Although most of the prisoners were men, a few women were held in the Dora-Mittelbau camp and in the Groß Werther subcamp. Regardless of sex, all prisoners were treated with extreme cruelty, which caused illness, injuries and deaths. Examples of the cruelty routinely inflicted on prisoners include: severe beatings that could permanently disable and/or disfigure the victims, deliberate and life-threatening starvation, physical and mental torture as well as summary execution under the smallest pretext. Jewish prisoners who were exhausted and could not keep pace with the work were sent to Auschwitz and Mauthausen, in special transports, to be killed there.

On 25 March 1945 Dora-Mittelbau and its satellites contained 34,500 prisoners. On 1 April 1945 the Nazis began the evacuation of the camp, within several days most of the prisoners had been taken out, with the majority transferred to Bergen-Belsen. Thousands were murdered en-route, at one point near the village of Gardelegen, several thousand prisoners –mostly Jews– were crowded into a barn that was set on fire, burning them all to death. Others succumbed to disease after they reached Bergen-Belsen concentration camp on the very eve of liberation.

The SS used the Boelcke Kaserne, a former barracks in Nordhausen city, as a dumping ground for hopeless prisoner cases. On the night of April 2, 1945, Royal Air Force bombers burned down much of Nordhausen city in two nighttime fire raids, killing 1,500 sick prisoners.

The camp was liberated on 9 April 1945 by the American forces, who found only a handful of prisoners there. Between 7 August and 31 December 1947, an American Military Tribunal, which was independent of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremburg, tried nineteen former staff members of the Dora- Mittelbau, fifteen were found guilty of war crimes.