Ghettos were invariably located near railroads. Trains were the primary means to move Jewish people into the ghettos, to transport them for forced labor, and later to deport them to concentration and death camps. Moving so many people scattered over large areas required the coordination of many bureaucracies. By the end of 1943, the rail system alone in the General Government employed several thousand Ukrainians, 9,000 Germans, and 145,000 Poles.