As soon as Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January, 1933 he took steps to eliminate his political opponents. The Nazis set up political prisons they called Konzentrationslager or concentration camps, where dissidents were held. One of the first was in Dachau, near Munich in southern Germany, opened in March 1933. At Dachau prisoners were brutalized and tortured, lashed and tied to stakes, kept in solitary confinement and subjected to medical experiments. Many inmates did not survive their mistreatment.