After Jews in many European countries were given freedom from legal restrictions and persecution, and were granted basic civil rights in the 19th century, many Jews were able to make significant contributions in arts and sciences.  For example, some rose to be the acknowledged leaders in their respective fields.  Before 1933, 29 percent of German Nobel Prize winners were Jewish.  Please use the audio guide numbers to explore the contributions of these famous Jewish artists and scientists.  As you will see, a number of them escaped the Nazis and came to Southern California, where they taught and influenced the development of our culture.